Application of transparent polymers in the consumer and precise optics depend on the knowledge of their optical and material characteristics! Metrological analysis of the experimental results is carried out. Computer modeling of normal dispersion is realized by our program Opticolor to calculate dispersion coefficients, curves, refractive indices and Abbe numbers. Extensive refractometric data of bulk samples, polymer solutions and thin films is reported. Principal, many trade-marks, and development optical grade polymers are considered. Some additional material characteristics are reported to facilitate the design of all-plastic or hybrid glass-plastic optics. Influence of temperature is analysed. The book presents different refractive index measuring techniques in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. Original results on investigation of transmission, refraction and dispersion of optical polymers are presented.